Focus of the Report: This report focuses on amniotic allograft (AA) for treatment or prevention of tendon and ligament injuries.

Technology Description: AA is prepared from sheets of amniotic membrane obtained shortly after caesarean delivery. For some products, amniotic membrane is dehydrated and ground into a fine powder that is resuspended to make an injectable solution. In both sheet and liquid forms, AA is believed to promote healing and prevent adhesions due to the presence of growth factors and molecules that are anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antimicrobial.

Controversy: The availability of amniotic membrane allograft is limited since it is obtained from caesarean section deliveries and it must be free of transmissible diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. Use of this allograft may not be necessary due to other options such as percutaneous interventions for treatment of refractory tendinitis and physical therapy protocols for prevention of adhesions after joint surgery.

Key Questions:

  • Is implantation or injection of AA effective for improving outcomes in tendon and ligament surgeries or injuries?

  • How does implantation or injection of AA compare with established methods for tendon and ligament surgeries or injuries?

  • Does use of AA pose any safety issues?

  • Have definitive patient selection criteria been established for use of AA in tendon and ligament surgeries or injuries?

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