Purpose of Technology: Invasive bone growth stimulators are fully implanted battery-operated devices that deliver electrical energy to bone sites to which cathodes are applied. They are intended to induce osteogenesis, stimulate bone growth, and promote healing in nonhealing fractures or a bone fusion site.

Controversy: Surgical implantation and constant delivery of electrical stimulation may pose safety hazards. Limited evidence is available to enable evaluation of efficacy and safety.

Relevant Questions:

For patients undergoing arthrodesis or treatment of delayed fracture or nonunion fracture:

  • Is invasive electrical stimulator (IES) effective in promoting bone healing, reducing pain, or improving function?

  • Is IES safe?

  • Have definitive patient selection criteria for IES use been established?

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