Purpose of Technology: Invasive bone growth stimulators are fully implanted battery-operated devices that deliver electrical energy to bone sites to which cathodes are applied. They are intended to induce osteogenesis, stimulate bone growth, and promote healing in nonhealing fractures or a bone fusion site.
Controversy: Surgical implantation and constant delivery of electrical stimulation may pose safety hazards. Limited evidence is available to enable evaluation of efficacy and safety.
For patients undergoing arthrodesis or treatment of delayed fracture or nonunion fracture:
Is invasive electrical stimulator (IES) effective in promoting bone healing, reducing pain, or improving function?
Is IES safe?
Have definitive patient selection criteria for IES use been established?
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