This report evaluates the clinical utility of pharmacogenetic testing for:

  1. CYP2D6 gene variants prior to prescribing codeine or tramadol

  2. Single-gene variants in the CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1, and UGT2B7 genes for general opioid prescribing (other than codeine and tramadol) or pharmacogenomic gene panel testing with combined interpretation for general opioid prescribing

to improve opioid treatment-related outcomes in adult patients with organic causes of pain.

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